Cyber Operations Could Cause Traumatic Experiences

By Milica D. Djekic

It’s quite risky spending your time in cyberspace. This environment could deal with so many traps, holes, and weird openings. In other words, it’s possible only to make a simple click on your screen and arrive at a very inconvenient location downloading to your IT system the content that could be frightening and damaging. The cybercrime masterminds would be well-familiar with these scenarios and, indeed, they would create so sophisticated traps that would not make you get you are already in trouble once you choose such a path.

Any cybercrime and cyber terrorism operation have a background and it’s important to go deeply into the past of the offense in order to discover its root. Before they make any move the hackers must know who would be interested to pay for their services, so they would not touch anyone without a certain need. The law enforcement cybercrime investigation is not only about arresting the cybercriminals or terrorists but rather it’s about understanding the entire scheme and getting who got correlated with whom and what the higher goals of those campaigns are. So, let’s go deep into the past of any illegal activity because the hackers would conduct their operation from some location, but they would not sit there and wait for you to come and catch them. The experience would suggest that within 24 hours after the successful attack they could get many miles away from their initial base.

On the other hand, the cyber terrorists could operate from some distant region and there is no chance to find them, so what you only can do is to utilize some kind of cyber warfare operation that would give you an option to destroy their equipment for a period of time. They would repair their resources and keep attacking again and again. That could be quite unpleasant, could it not? In other words, always keep in mind that some mommy with the baby would be stuck at her home while not getting important web connectivity for her smart kitchen and her baby would undoubtedly be scared of not getting warm milk for a dinner.

A similar scenario could happen in any office or factory if your IT infrastructure gets overwhelmed with viruses, spyware, malware, and advanced persistent threats.  In these cases,  you would definitely deal with the business discontinuity and ineffectiveness, so your IT support team would need some time to fix everything for you. If such a situation proceeds – things could get a bit of annoying to everyone, of course. The fact is you would not suffer the stressful condition if these situations were rare, but if it’s happening day by day, week by week and if you are losing so confidential information frequently – you would definitely get frustrated with your everyday routine for a reason the majority of your hard work would just go to waste. So, you are losing your effort just in the middle of your business day and your boss has required you to resolve your task by the end of that working week. Indeed, you are frustrated and by the bad situation – you did not expect that cyber attack at that moment – so you did not cope with your regular daily backup procedures and nothing has been saved just in case.

The bad situation could be even worse if someone has compromised your IT system from the outside and inexperienced IT security professionals could blame you for dealing with the high-risk cyberspace content. You would try to explain what you have done and if the law enforcement cyber team is that naive as well they could believe that you are the potential insider threat, so your firing would simply smile on you. Being the insider threat is so criminal stuff and there could be a lot of those to explain to the Police officers. Well, if you put all these into account – you would get that any cyber operation with the possible complications at work could cause real drama and trauma in your everyday life. So many people getting the skill to obtain something on the computer with internet connectivity could just get less productive and somehow paralyzed if they try to imagine what can happen if anyone seeks from them any sort of answers getting provided to the critical questions. If anyone would report about you as the possible trouble maker at least you would get suspended from your work waiting for the justice to come. The people would make the mistakes and anything that can go wrong will go wrong, so for such a reason, it’s not surprising at all that you can feel a sense of fear, doubts, and pessimism waiting for the IT security team and authorities to estimate what happened within the entire network.

On the other hand, if your IP address is not compromised you can expect that someone could play with your network traffic and shut down your business for several working shifts. Losing the information and especially the time is like losing the money and so many businesses would simply collapse in front of so untactful hackers and terrorists. As it is so well-known, the cybercrime would cost the global economy a lot and no one would get avoided, so far. Well, that’s why we say it’s so significant to put your accent on the background of the cyber campaigns for a reason the masterminds of those actions would see the much bigger picture and carefully choose the time and moment to accomplish what they want to obtain.

In this effort, we would go step by step through the main questions being so obvious here and we hope our contribution would find some practical applications in the world of investigative procedures and policies. Apparently, there is still a huge shortage for the cyber defense staff, so what we need right here is to suggest how such a need for the skill could get overcome in reality.

Assumption #1. The honest workforce would always try to make an advantage to a good employer.

Explanation #1. If the people are happy at their work, they would push harder and harder in order to make their organization getting beneficial from their effort. No honest person would do anything against the good employer and if there are the cloudy days to the entire business – the loyal staff would not leave and they would commonly get organized to save what they can save. If the relations between the employer and employees are fair, those two parties would attempt to develop a relationship full of trust, confidence, and solidarity. The business is so dynamic area and there could be plenty of ups and downs through every working day and if your managers are kind and supportive about your effort – you would always want to remain the part of such a successful team. The solidarity between co-workers is from the crucial importance to the majority of people and only together the folks could obtain a lot. The big challenge to any organization is the insider threat and anyone being aware of the possible consequences of such a choice would never try to ruin its organization from the inside. Both – small and large businesses – are equally vulnerable to insider threats and the employer should try to confirm all of its staff from time to time. The honest guy if satisfied at work would always try to improve his effort and make the advantage for the entire team. On the other hand, if the relations at work are fuzzy – no honest person would attempt to go against anything and that individual would simply leave such unhealthy surroundings. In addition, let’s say that everything inside would work perfectly and in such a situation everyone would be so pleased with everyone. The reason why we believe that any good employer would undoubtedly cope with the deep loyalty of its staffs is that if you make people feeling like the part of the health team if you make them gain confidence and if you give them the chance to rise and grow as the whole – they would always remain grateful to such an organization and try to return all the received and given support coming from their principles. Anyone with the deep approach would try to develop his skills in details and that’s feasible only if your employer offers you an opportunity for such progress. The marketplace could be the big dilemma to many business actors and no one knows what tomorrow can bring, so it’s not easy to take the right course through such a challenging journey and what you need the most in order to succeed in such a mission is the honest workforce that would not cheat on you or trick you in any sense. The people would know that and they would always be nice and helpful about anyone providing them the good conditions at work for a reason the employment is something that is needed to progress, learn and at least feed your family. No honest staff would try to be disappointing to anyone offering fair treatment and a healthy business environment to all, so far.

Assumption #2. Cyber operations could be so annoying and cause business discontinuity and ineffectiveness.

Explanation #2. Imagine yourself at the work doing something in the digital environment and trying to make some backups of your efforts on a daily basis. You would know all the necessary procedures and policies on how to cope in a well-organized environment and it could appear that everything would go so smoothly from hour to hour. Suddenly, your machine would get some malware and the entire effort would go to waste. That’s quite annoying, right? What would that mean in practice? Basically, you would lose everything you have done that day and once you fix your system – you would need to start from the beginning which can be somehow embarrassing, so far. Also, your curves of productivity and effectiveness would show you are dealing with the declining trend and that could seriously impact the entire business continuity of the entire team as the entire IT network to your office would get infected with the same malware or exposed to the similar attack. Anyhow, as a professional who would get resilient to many external factors – you would yet remain somehow annoyed. The worst possible thing is you would never know when the bad guys could attack again, so you could feel some sort of frustration if such a situation gets repeated again and again. The main problem here is the business discontinuity and ineffectiveness that could dramatically impact your finances on a weekly, monthly or even annual basis. In the business world, the time is money, so if you are spending your time repairing something that should not even happen – you would affect your budget so comprehensively. Such a condition could lead to smaller incomes to the entire organization and once that business gets pushed into the crisis – everyone including the staff would feel the negative impacts. From such a point of view, it’s important to take into account the cybersecurity and any investment in such a way could be only the advantage to everyone. The people in business could be under the pressure for working hard and getting constrained with so short deadlines, so they can manage some level of the stress – but if you put them on the fire every single day and if they begin suffering the hacking attacks periodically – they would definitely get over annoyed and need some time to overcome such a given obstacle. The major point, in this case, could be that the business would cope with so many marketplace challenges and demands, so any sort of loss coming from the lack of safety and security procedures as well as policies should get avoided or if happens – fixed as soon as possible. The good managers would deal with strong leadership capacities and they would always try to encourage and motivate the people to work hard and go beyond their limits. In other words, if there is any issue regarding your operating system crashes or DDoS campaigns – that’s something the great leader at work should need to know to manage as well – as that could be from the critical significance to the entire team and its productivity and effectiveness.

Assumption #3. The repeated IT anomalies at work could impact stress and anxiety with employees.

Explanation #3. It’s the beginning of your working day and you would cope with the brief catch up meeting with your supreme and the rest of the colleagues in order to try to figure out how to make your daily schedule and the listing of tasks. It could appear as quite advantageous to do some brainstorming at the beginning of your business day because the good team would encourage you to go beyond your limits giving you the chance to feel the deep thankfulness to everyone for making you provide the best out of your own performances. In a healthy team, everything is about who would motivate whom to give his maximum every single day and become a meaningful member of the group. So, if you woke up with the thought that you could never accomplish something and at the end of that working day you even gave more, you would definitely get proud of yourself and truly grateful to the guys in your workplace for letting you obtain so. Well, your business day would begin in a quite constructive manner and you would be full of confidence about the coming obligations and challenges you should face up tomorrow. The next day would come and you would start it with the same routine being so excited that even then you would be better than yourself. And suddenly – the collapse! The entire IT infrastructure would shut down and you would lose a lot of your current effort. It’s OK! You are the professional and you can manage the stress. Well, someone would fix everything and you would proceed with your hard work and probably get chosen for the employee of the month for such a season. New month, new expectations! You would feel like a boxer in the ring getting ready to knock down all your tasks for such a tournament. And then – the new collapse! Your entire IT asset would go down. That’s a quite annoying condition, right? It would appear that you would need to kick off not only your tasks but rather the entire hacker’s community. You are the champ and you know that, but if those anomalies keep repeating you could develop some kind of stress as well as anxiety. No champ wants to lose, but those annoying bad guys could make you lose your patience. The champ with the mental health concern is not the champ and that’s literally the message that the cybercriminals send to you. If you are upset, you cannot win the tournament and they know that – so, in such a sense you would get knocked down by them and that’s seriously what you did not want at all. Well, if you notice that someone in your company is moving your cursor in front of your nose – you would if anxious need to break your workstation in pieces. That’s what we call the violence at the workplace! So, a few months ago you were the champ in your office and now you are only someone getting so impatient about everything that is happening around you. The obvious reasons for that are those so crazy anomalies in your IT environment. So, the point is clear! Even the best performance workers could feel like losers if they got no appropriate condition to operate. The bad guys would know that and they would so lucidly exploit such a weakness and make even the best employees feel like dummies. That’s quite discouraging, is not so? As time goes on everyone would become resilient to that amount of stress, but the first reaction could be quite irrational and that’s something no one would need at all.

Assumption #4. The state of readiness could turn into a waiting condition if the common worker got insufficient abilities in cyberspace.

Explanation #4. So, maybe you lost your temper with the first IT anomalies occurring in your network, but sooner or later you would build on your resilience to cope with those incidents. In other words, you would get in the state of preparedness regarding the possible hacking attacks. The state of readiness is so positive attribute, but if you have developed the fear that everything could go wrong – you are definitely dealing with the waiting condition. That’s could be quite distracting for a reason it would lower your concentration as well as focus on your tasks. So, if your inner voice is telling you to watch out from the possible cyber operations happening at your work, your entire business performances would decrease and you would easily get upset about anything you do. It can happen that you would sooner or later develop the scary emotions about your work and that’s something that should get prevented if possible. As there is a suggestion to many employers to invest in the cyber defense – we could add it’s significant to care about the staffs’ mental health and provide them the training on how to cope with their anxiety level. The fact is some workforce would not be that brilliant in the cyberspace, so they would undoubtedly develop the waiting condition if they face on several cyber campaigns and lose some of their valuable data. In other words, these guys would be less confident with the company and they would easily get bullied by such skillful cybercrime actors. The waiting condition could get manifested with so obsessive thoughts and sometimes emotions about some event. If your mind is preoccupied with so many repeating thinking patterns about some pessimistic ideas – you would obviously get less effective regarding your usual routine. The cybercrime can occur at any time and any place and the experienced IT security professionals would sit in front of their screens and tackle those concerns applying so sophisticated cyber defense tools on. You should always get that in mind before you let your over-obsessive fears taking control over your ratio. If you really cope with insufficient IT skills – you could get annoyed with anything happening in cyberspace. Your subconscious mind would accumulate so many doubts, questions, and ugly memories and that’s why you would feel the frustration about any new working hour waiting for something bad to happen again and again. In other words, it’s quite clear that carefully prepared and conducted cyber operations could cause some kind of drama and trauma in the business arena. Even the most experienced IT security professionals are not fully immune to these scenarios as they need a huge concentration to take control of their irrational drives and let their rational thoughts get their place in their awareness. So, the question is what the chances of the common employee to handle all those are. Practically, any competitive employer would try to offer the suitable working conditions to all its staffs, but the bad guys simply must keep us in fear – so, if anyone wants to use anyone in the business sense, he should provide some kind of support to all about all unwanted and unpredictable situations and events coming on.

Assumption #5. The traumatic syndrome is a manifestation of the negative emotions about some event, person, or relation from the survived experiences.

Explanation #5. Dealing with the crime scene could be quite an unpleasant experience. Even the law enforcement professionals tackling some crime in the physical environment could not be fully resilient to those insights. Apparently, they need to get developed stress management skills at some level, but sometimes it’s so hard to cope with all the challenges of such a career. The cyberspace itself could also get correlated with the crime scene and indeed, so many high tech offenses have been committed there. The cyber defense specialists who would assure the digital devices being in the network would cope with some amount of the stress management capacities, but the common employees not being that familiar with the IT world would easily become the victims of the cybercrime and hacker’s attacks, so they could develop the quite inconvenient condition, so far. The traumatic syndromes are frequently linked with the victims of the crime and those persons could struggle about some survived experiences from their past getting correlated with the persons, events, or relations on. The masterminds of the cybercrime and high tech terrorism are so dangerous guys providing so harmful strategies and tactics in order to make the psychological impact on their victims. In addition, these malicious actors would see the ordinary people as their targets and especially in the sense of terrorism – there would be a lot of offenses that should push the victims into the crisis. The cybercrime groups would commonly work for the profit, but as the armed robbery could be the nightmare to anyone being present on the crime scene – a similar case is with the cybercrime victims. They could stay deeply frustrated about what happened in their virtual environment. On the other hand, the cyber terrorists are far more frightening for a reason they would try to conduct the cyber operation in order to shake someone’s confidence or leave so deep impact on his mental health condition. In other words, it’s not only about who would annoy whom – in the case of the terrorism, but the bad guys would also go far more beyond the typical bullying and they would literally attempt to intimidate their victims, so far. In such a case, the fear could go deeply into your bones and if you choose to attend your doctor, he could diagnose you with some traumatic syndrome. These sorts of attacks are happening every single day at so many places and it’s important to build on the adequate response techniques and methodologies to these kinds of crimes. The cyberspace is never safe enough and it does not matter how hard the IT security professionals would work to assure all of us – the bad guys would always find the holes in the system to approach us. So, if we talk about the traumatic experiences, we could mention the so obvious case of losing data and passing through so requiring procedure in order to prove that you have done something that day, but you remained without such an effort due to the hacker’s operations. In the business sector, we all would cope with some rules and follow the strict behavioral codex that would not let us get so personal with our co-workers, so sometimes it’s so complicated explaining to your boss that you have worked so hard to produce something and all of it just vanished in the sub-second period of time. The cybercrime investigation would probably find the clues for your story, but so many inexperienced staff would not know that and they would pass through the real hell being so scared that no one would trust them or they could cope with some restrictions for not dealing with enough evidence at that moment. So, in our opinion – such a situation could get prevented and the entire traumatic impact could get reduced if the employees would know how to handle such a case. For instance, it’s important to teach your staff to respond so appropriately to that occurrence and it’s needed to suggest to everyone that there must exist a certain level of the trust amongst the team’s members. Well, if your heavy work has been destroyed in any sense while you were operating in cyberspace, you are definitely the victim of the illegal activity and only that could be quite traumatic to your mental health state. In other words, it would seem that we are still on the search for accurate responses to these occurrences, so at this stage, it’s crucial to understand that we need to protect our assets as well as people the best we can.

Assumption #6. Cyber operations need skillful hackers.

Explanation #6. Hacking is easy if you have someone’s IP address and the rest of the access details. There are so many professional tracking tools that could support you to track anyone’s accounts. Simply the black market would get in possession of these effective applications and the bad guys would so massively exploit these gadgets. The reason why the black market has become overwhelmed with such software is the never-ending insider threat challenge. In other words, someone from the legal system would sell those products to the malicious actors not caring at all about the possible consequences to the community. Also, we would notice that there are a lot of email address hunting tools that could serve for discovering someone business account details and once you get someone’s email address you would not need his password as the professional security tool would give you the tracking permissions. In addition, if you are playing with someone’s email detail – it’s quite clear that you can easily conduct the phishing campaign that would offer you much more access information. So, once you get enough data to make a breach to someone’s device – you would be in a position to expose the entire network and make some changes regarding those IT assets. The experience would show that the hackers are so skillful guys and they can do a lot in order to offer access to any digital environment. Indeed, there are plenty of social engineering techniques that could get applied in order to threaten everything – including both – physical and virtual security. If anyone believes being the hacker is an easy task, he is purely mistaken. The practice would suggest that those guys are outstandingly intelligent and quite quick in the cyberspace. Maybe someone would formulate the strategy on what is needed to get done in sense of either psychological or profit-making operations and those cybercriminals would just find the way to accomplish such a requirement. So, as it is quite well-known there is the entire black market on the Darknet that would offer you plenty of services beginning with the narcotics distribution, over contract murder, until the rent-a-hacker services. In other words, anyone getting the capacity to make the strategy could pay to the member of the cybercrime underworld to conduct some cyber operation that could cope with the wide spectrum of feasible applications and usages. Some studies would show that those hacker groups would function as the enterprises that would get capable to make the billions of dollars per annum. In other words, if the terrorists or any transnational crime groups make a decision to attack anyone in order to do some sort of intimidation or cyber warfare – they would rent so skillful professional hackers that would so smoothly deliver those campaigns. Apparently, so many cyber terrorists would have the capabilities to provide the cyber operations in order to intimidate as many people as they can, and in such a case – it’s clear that even those bad guys could deal with the exceptional hacking skills. No threat is naive and the members of the cyber defense community should get aware of so before they run any kind of the counter-offensive operation on.

Assumption #7. Some cyber campaigns could be prevented.

Explanation #7. In the majority of cases, so many business assets worldwide would cope with quite poor cyber defense. The samples of well-equipped security operating centers are so rare and it would seem that the small enterprise area would still be an unprotected branch of human activity. So many legal businesses would need better IT skills to all their staff including the entire management as only some of them could get assumed as knowledgeable in the field of emerging technologies. So, if they would cope with the stronger IT security capacities – they could prevent so many of the incoming cyber attacks and operations, so far. From such a point of view, it would appear that the cyber skill shortage is still so deep and the smart management should think hard on how to improve all it can advance in order to avoid so serious incidents as we mentioned before. The majority of businesses on the marketplace are small or medium-sized and it’s quite obvious even if they are the key pillar of any economy – they cannot handle such a challenging situation on their own. In other words, they need support from the government agencies in order to get some instructions on how to improve and strengthen their IT infrastructure. The need for qualified IT security staff is bigger than ever as we would cope with so hard time in the history that would bring us real worries and concerns. On the other hand, the crime is mainly the international business and for such a reason the international collaboration between the defense and intelligence services is more than necessary at the present time. In addition, everyone with the vision would know that the present is only the moment and it’s needed to think about the coming days that would seek from us to develop so deep and trustworthy connections between the national, regional, and international security agencies. Next, let’s return to the ordinary office belonging to some firm that would have its own IT network, but not enough qualified cyber employees at all. If we keep developing our story we would figure out that so many common people would not even know that there are quite suitable IT security tools that can prevent us from so basic hacking campaigns. In other words, it would be useful to install some anti-malware software on your device in order to prevent your system from any malware being matched with your application’s database. Also, there are plenty of options for the relatively safe website usages and those gadgets should get applied in order to offer to yourself the quite convenient internet experience. It would not cost you a lot, but it would serve some purpose! On the other hand, there is no absolute security and it’s only a matter of time and effort when some system would get broken. That’s why the majority of software would need the patches and updates at the periodical level and if we take all those into the consideration – we would realize once well-equipped with the gadgets and skills we can expect that some of the incoming cyber operations could get prevented or at least reported to the law enforcement officers who would find the methods to tackle such a concern.

Assumption #8. Experienced IT security professionals should rely on skills, not irrationalities.

Explanation #8. If your IT asset is often exposed to cyber attacks, it could be quite tricky even to the most experienced IT security staff to cope with such a task. The IT defense needs a huge concentration and ability to think fast as well as cope with the brilliant linkage capacities. So, if you are not capable to correlate the stuff quickly and accurately or in other words – if you do not have the great reflexes, you could be quite useless for the role of the IT security support. It’s about the good defense, right? As the other security officers would be good at shooting and accurately hit all the moving aims the IT security manager should get capable to terminate all the external connections trying to log to his network. In such a case, maybe you would not be the excellent target shooter, but you would definitely get recognized as the outstanding troubleshooter for the cyberspace. Sometimes the web traffic is so busy and there are so many breach attempts, so our troubleshooter should demonstrate the strong focus and good patient in order to remain calm and rationally resolve any trouble being active in the asset’s network. The fact is even the well-trained police officer carrying on the gun could lose the control over the situation and cope with some kind of irrationality, so it’s not surprising at all for the experienced IT security professional to lose the battle with his impatience and push aside all his skill and logical reasoning. That can happen even to the most experienced cyber staff and the secret of how to stay away from such a scenario is to practice your mind to remain concentrated even when things are so hard. Sometimes the hackers could be so annoying and you can lose your temper getting the real cyber warfare with the bad guys. Does not matter how hard you try to terminate them from your IT infrastructure – they would persist and persist. The first thing you would want to do in such a case is to send everything to hell, but that would lead you nowhere. You need to remain with your workstation and continue combating against those annoying folks that would simply want you to lose control over the entire situation. In so many cases, if you are protecting the critical infrastructure – you would know that there is no place for the mistake. You just must win that war! So, your mind needs to be in peace and you need to rule over your irrationalities in order to make the rational, prompt, and accurate decisions on. No space for any mistake! You know that and at the latest, you are paid to be flawless. On the other hand, if the situation goes outside of the control – the responsibility could be yours, yours and only yours. You do not want that, right? Additionally, the IT security role would seek from you to be a good team player and if there is no accurate communication between the team’s members the bigger is a change to the bad guys to obtain what they wanted to do.

Assumption #9. It’s inconvenient losing your IT resources frequently.

Explanation #9. The IT resources could be your data, software, operating system or the entire hardware devices. The trouble with the new generation cyber threats is that they could make your gadget getting broken or fully damaged. So, it’s not only about spending your time fixing your software irregularities – it’s more about losing your money for the entire IT infrastructure replacements. That’s so expensive and if it’s happening from time to time – you would figure out you would deal with the real financial losses. No organization would want that happens to so, right? That’s why there are some guidelines and recommendations to invest in the cyber defense within your facilities. So, the need for competitive cyber security is so big and if you do not want to repair, re-install or replace all your resources and the other IT capacities – you should know how to prevent those occurrences even appear. Simply, it’s the stress to everyone in the organization to cope with such a loss and business discontinuity. There are some suggestions that some advanced persistent threats could make your hardware getting malfunctioned. The fact is there is so much malware that could break your processor’s unit and in such a case – there is no way to fix anything – you just need to throw everything into the rubbish and buy the new hardware configuration on. It’s so inconvenient, right?

Assumption #10. Cyber operations could have a psychological effect.

Explanation #10. The greatest fear of any business is not only to lose its sensitive information, but rather the entire IT infrastructure. In other words, if you cope with the fear about anything you could go under the psychological effect that could get used by the bad guys who would want you to give up from your routine and activities. It would get the sense of sabotage, right – and basically, that’s the case! The aim of any psychological operation is to disable its enemy and make it getting so powerless in front of the offenders. Next, if the people are dealing with the irrationalities, that could fully decrease their focus on the work and make them getting less productive and effective about their tasks. Finally, if you are pre-occupied with the thoughts that everything could go to the waste with the only one your click – it’s seriously something that can push you into the deep mental health crisis and probably personal frustration. If only one team member feels bad about anything that condition could get reflected the entire team and that’s something any competitive employer is scared about. So, cyber operations could cause such traumatic experiences and there is a real need to think hard how to overcome such a condition. Sooner we get how – better we would cope with the coming perspectives!

Comments

In this effort, we would provide a deep insight into a certain topic in order to explain some of its perspectives in more detail. In our opinion, such a review could be used as the starting point for the development of some security and safety procedures and policies. Also, it could help the law enforcement and intelligence agencies to navigate some investigative process as well as create the law enforcement and intelligence knowledge bases. Next, this effort could support forensic detectives and investigators in their need to clarify some aspects of their work. In addition, those could be helpful updates to the law makers to cover on and respond to all the security challenges through the appropriate legal frameworks and regulations. In our belief, some suggestions to the best practice in the criminal justice environment have been made as well. Finally, this review would cope with some business ideas and it could serve as the encouragement to an emerging marketplace economy, so far.

About the Author

Milica D. Djekic AuthorMilica D. Djekic is an Independent Researcher from Subotica, Republic of Serbia. She received her engineering background from the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade. She writes for some domestic and overseas presses and she is also the author of the book “The Internet of Things: Concept, Applications, and Security” being published in 2017 with the Lambert Academic Publishing.  Milica is also a speaker with the BrightTALK expert’s channel. She is a member of an ASIS International since 2017 and contributor to the Australian Cyber Security Magazine since 2018. Milica’s research efforts are recognized with the Computer Emergency Response Team for the European Union (CERT-EU), Censys Press, and EASA European Centre for Cybersecurity in Aviation (ECCSA). Her fields of interest are cyber defense, technology, and business. Milica is a person with a disability.